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Timber Rattlesnake

Crotalus horridus

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Species Description

The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) is a striking and iconic species native to the eastern United States, known for its distinctive appearance and potent venom. Typically ranging from 3 to 5 feet in length. This species showcases a robust build and a series of dark, chevron-shaped markings along its body. Its coloration varies, ranging from gray to brown, often with a hint of rust or orange, blending seamlessly with its woodland habitat.

Found primarily in deciduous forests, rocky outcrops, and wooded hillsides across its range, the timber rattlesnake is a skilled predator, preying primarily on small mammals such as mice, voles, and chipmunks. Utilizing its specialized heat-sensing pits located between its eyes and nostrils, it can detect the subtlest movements of its prey, striking with precision when the opportunity arises.

Despite its fearsome reputation, the timber rattlesnake is typically docile and prefers to avoid confrontation with humans. However, if threatened or cornered, it may defend itself using its venomous bite, which contains a potent cocktail of toxins designed to incapacitate its prey.


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The timber rattlesnake range map is in process of being updated. The species does not occur in high numbers in all areas of the above range map.

While historically widespread, timber rattlesnake populations have experienced declines in many areas due to habitat loss, fragmentation, and human persecution. The species has been completely extirpated from Maine, Delaware, Rhode Island, and Ontario, Canada. The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) inhabits a diverse range of ecosystems throughout the eastern United States, spanning from the northeastern states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont, southward through the Appalachian Mountains into Georgia and Alabama. It also occurs in parts of the southeastern coastal plains, extending as far south as Alachua County in central Florida. Within this extensive range, the species demonstrates adaptability to various habitats, including deciduous forests, rocky hillsides, mountainous terrain, and occasionally even swamps or marshy areas. 


In the northern extent of its range, timber rattlesnakes are often associated with rocky outcrops, talus slopes, and forested hillsides, where they seek refuge in crevices and rocky shelters during periods of extreme weather. As one moves southward into the Appalachian region, the species can also be found in more densely forested areas, often characterized by a mix of hardwoods such as oak, hickory, and maple.

Throughout its range, the timber rattlesnake demonstrates a preference for areas with abundant prey populations, including small mammals like mice, voles, and squirrels, as well as ground-nesting birds and occasionally amphibians or reptiles. This dietary flexibility allows the species to thrive in a variety of habitats, from densely wooded forests to more open, rocky landscapes.

Species Status

The timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) faces various challenges to its survival across its range, leading to concerns about its population status and long-term viability. Habitat loss and fragmentation due to urbanization, agriculture, and development have significantly impacted the species' habitat and ability to find suitable shelter and prey. Additionally, road mortality poses a significant threat, particularly in areas where roads intersect with the snake's habitat.

Human persecution, driven by fear and misunderstanding, also contributes to declines in timber rattlesnake populations. Despite their crucial role in maintaining ecosystem balance by controlling prey populations, timber rattlesnakes are often targeted for eradication, leading to localized extirpations in some areas.

Furthermore, illegal collection for the exotic pet trade and traditional medicine markets poses additional threats to the species. Overexploitation can further deplete already vulnerable populations and disrupt natural ecosystems.

Climate change presents another challenge for timber rattlesnakes, affecting their habitat suitability, prey availability, and reproductive success. Shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns may alter the distribution of suitable habitat and exacerbate existing threats.

Pathogens pose a risk to timber rattlesnake populations, particularly as increasing fragmentation decreases gene flow and redundant populations. Known pathogens include the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, which causes Snake Fungal Disease. and an invasive pentastomid, Raillietiella orientalis, which is becoming more prevalent as intermediate hosts spread the lungworm throughout the southern range of the species. Timber rattlesnakes are especially susceptible to Snake Fungal Disease in the northern portion of their range, where the species overwinters for longer periods of time and weight loss from the disease increase the risk of timber rattlesnakes not surviving the winter.

Continued research efforts are also crucial for better understanding the species' ecology, behavior, and population dynamics. By addressing these threats and implementing effective conservation strategies, we can work towards ensuring the long-term survival of the timber rattlesnake and preserving its important ecological role in eastern ecosystems.

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